Garlic Cultivation

Production Technology

The production and productivity of garlic in India is very low as compared to many other countries. Unawareness of the farmers about improved technology viz. high yielding varieties, congenial climate and soil, agro techniques, insect pest damaging the crop and their management though main reasons, inadequate market supply is also for limiting the production indirectly.

Climate

It is a cool season crop. Higher yields are obtained under in a mild climate. It can tolerate frost up to some extent. During maturity of the bulbs, long days and dry weather are beneficial while short days and cool temperature favour vegetative growth. As son as bulbing commences leaf initiation ceases. Because of this reason, garlic should be planted early to promote vegetative growth under short days and cool weather.

Soil

Garlic can be grown on variety of soils but thrives better on fertile, well-drained loamy soils. The bulbs get discolored in badly drained soils and pulling the bulbs from hard soils caused spitted and bruised loosing its storage life. pH should be in the range of 6-7.

Varieties

GHC-1 : This is the most popular variety of garlic in Kullu and Mandi districts of HP. It is high yielding, fragrant, bigger size cloves which are easy for peeling. Average yield is 200-225 q/ha contains 15-18 cloves in single bulb, mature crop 230 to 250 days.

Sowing Time

Time of sowing of garlic depends on the altitude of the area where the crop is to be grown.
Low Hill : October-November
Mid Hill : Mid September-October
High Hill : April

Seed rate and Spacing

Seed rate: In garlic, individual segment (cloves) is used for propagation. Cloves for planting should be buried in the soil at a depth of about 2 cm. Generally, 500-600 kg (small size cloves) and 800-900 kg (large size cloves) of garlic seed is required for planting one hectare of land.

Spacing

Row to row : 20 cm
Plant to plant : 10 cm


Fertilizers and Manures


Fertilizers

Per hectare

Per Bigha

FYM

250 q

20 q

Method-I

Urea

250 kg

20 kg

SSP

475 kg

38kg

MOP

100 kg

8 kg

Method-II

12:32:16 Mixed fertilizers

234 kg

19 kg

MOP

37.5 kg

3 kg

Urea

210 kg

16.8 kg


Method-I :
Total FYM should be incorporated in the soil at the time of preparation of field.
Half of N and full P and K should be applied at the time of sowing
Remaining half of N in two equal splits should be applied at 30 and 60 days after sowing.

Method-II :
Total FYM should be incorporated in the soil at the time of preparation of field.
Full of 12:32:16, K and half urea should be applied at the time of sowing
Remaining urea in two equal splits should be applied at 30 and 60 days after sowing.
Excessive N results in thick neck (undesirable)
B helps in increasing the allyle propyle disulfide so, Borax @ 10 kg/ha should be applied.

Mulching :
The garlic crop should be provided with a thin layer (4-5 cm) of mulch as dry leaves @ 5-6 t/ha or crop residues or 10-12 t/ha of well rotten FYM or Compost.
Mulching increases soil temperature and moisture, ease germination, add organic matter and also smother the weeds.

Interculture :
Garlic is shallow rooted crop and 2-3 hand weeding at 30 and 60 days after sowing is recommended.

Irrigation :
Soil should be in optimum moisture at the time of planting the cloves.
In general, garlic needs irrigation at an interval of 10 -12 days during vegetative growth and 15-20 days during maturation.
Excessive irrigation results in sprouting of bulbs
Irrigation after a long of drought results in splitting of bulbs.

Harvesting :
The crop is considered ready for harvesting when the tops turn yellowish or brownish and show signs of drying up and bend to the ground.
Early harvesting results in poor self life
Delayed harvesting results in splitting and sprouting of bulbs.

Curing :
Curing is an additional process of drying to remove the excess moisture. Bulbs are covered along with the tops of each other to avoid damage to the bulbs from sun.
Bulbs are cured for 7-10 days in shade either with tops or after cutting the tops by leaving 2.5 cm to avoid the sun injury.

Yield :
Scientifically managed crop of garlic can give as high as 250q/ha of yield.

Storage :
Garlic with leaves /tops can be stored by hanging in well-ventilated rooms. This is however is not possible on commercial scale.
Perforated bags will prolong the storage life.

Plant Protection:
A. Diseases

Purple Blotch : Incidence starts with appearance of water soaked areas on leaves and soon they become brown in colour and later purple zonated spots appear in centre. Moist weather conditions are favourable. Severity of disease causes falling of leaves and the bulbs of the affected pants may rot later.

Management
Follow long crop rotations with unrelated crops.
Destroy the infected plant debris.
With the initiation of the disease, spray the crop with mancozeb (0.25%) or hexaconazole (0.05%).

Stemphylium Blight :
The disease appears on the radical leaves of transplanted seedlings at 3-4 leaf stages in the months of February and March. Purplish green coloured elongated spots appear on the leaves resulting in blighting.

Management :
Collect and destroy the infected plant debris.
Spray the crop with difenoconazole (0.015 %) and repeat at fortnight interval.

B. Insects :
Thrips : Causes serious damage to garlic shoots from February to may and produce whitish spots followed by drying of leaves.

Management :
As and when the insects appear, spray the crop with Malathion (375 ml malathion) or carbaryl (1.5 kg Sevin) or marshal (750 ml) in 750 litres of water.

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